Cabbage

Cactaceae

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cactus Plant

                          PHOTOS:

Cactus

Calcium

Calcium Carbonate

California Nutmeg

Callose

Callose is a carbohydrate substance, secreted around the sieve plate, that controls the size of the holes in the sieve plate apertures in order to control the volume of flow of photosynthetic products that flow through the phloem.

Callus

Calorie

Calyptra

Calyx

Canis latrans

Canis lupus

Canopy

Capsule

                    DIAGRAMS:  Capsule Fruit

                          PHOTOS:  Marchantia / Marchantia

                                              Moss / Moss

Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate substance is a substance that has the general chemical structure of a sugar.

Carbon

Carbon Cycle

Carbon Dioxide

Carbonic Acid

Caribou

Carinal Canal

Carinal canals are found in the stems and rhizomes of horsetails (Equisetum).  There are two different canals in horsetails, carinal canals and vallecular canals.  The carinal canals are the smaller of the two and are associated with the vascular bundles, opposite the ridges of the stem and rhizome.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Equisetum Stem

                          PHOTOS:  Equisetum Stem / Equisetum Stem / Equisetum Stem

                                             Equisetum Rhizome / Equisetum Rhizome
                                             Equisetum Rhizome

Carlos Linneus

Carnivores

Carotenoids

Carpel

Carpellary Bundles

Carrier Molecule

(for plants that open their stomates at night)

Carrier Proteins

Carrot Family

Carrots

Caryopsis

Casparian Strip

                    DIAGRAMS:  Dicot Root Vascular Cylinder

                          PHOTOS:  Dicot Root Vascular Cylinder 
                                             Monocot Root Vascular Cylinder

 

Castor Bean Seed

Catkin

A catkin is one of several types of inflorescences that can be described as a spike of unisexual flowers.  The catkin can be either pendulous or erect depending upon the species. Catkins are also have the name, ament.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Catkin

                          PHOTOS:

Cavitation

Cavitation is when water is "broken apart."  It occurs in vessels and tracheids when the tension on the water being pulled through the xylem becomes too great and breaks the column of water producing bubbles in these cells.  Cavitation also occurs when the propeller of a boat begins to spin and ceases to propel the boat in a tight turn.

Cease

Cedar Waxwings

Cedars

Cedars are gymnosperms in Division Coniferophyta and the family Cupressaceae that have woody conelike fruits and overlapping scale-like leaves.

Cell Division

(hormone)

Cell Elongation

Cell growth

(hormone)

Cell Membrane

Cell Sap

Cell Wall

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cell Wall / Cytoplasm / Microtubules

                          PHOTOS:

Cellulose

Cellulose is a polymer of six-carbon sugar molecules.  It is the main component in plant cell walls.  Cellulose is generally undigestable by animals.

Centimeters per Hour

Central Canal

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Equisetum Stem / Equisetum Stem

Central Cylinder

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Moss Stem

Central Meristem

Central Valley of California

Centrales

Chalaza

Chalazal End

Chambers

Chaparral

Chemical Inhibitors

Chemical Weathering

Chemicals

Chemotactic Response

Cherries

Chestnut

Chlamydospores

Chlorella

Chlorenchyma

Chlorenchyma cells are parenchyma cells that contain chlorophyll and can thus carry on photosynthesis.  Chlorenchyma cells are the principle cells in the palisade and spongy parenchyma of the leaf mesophyll.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Tissue Types

                          PHOTOS:

Chlorine

Chlorophyll a

Chlorophyta

Chloroplast

                    DIAGRAMS:  Chloroplast / Stomata / Cytoplasm

                          PHOTOS:

Chromosome

Chromosomes are the threads of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) in the nucleus of the cell that contains all of the information necessary to grow an entire plant.

Chronological

Chrysanthemum

Cilia

Circadian Rhythm

Circumpolar

Citrus Fruit

Cladode

A cladode is a modified stem that looks somewhat like a leaf.  It it typically flat, green, and contains more width than a typical stem.  It will bear leaves, flowers and fruits.  This is a synonym for cladophyll.

Cladophyll

A cladophyll is a modified stem that looks somewhat like a leaf.  It it typically flat, green, and contains more width than a typical stem.  It will bear leaves, flowers and fruits.  This is a synonym for cladode.

Class

Classification

Clay

Climate

Climax Communities

Climax Species

Cloaca

Closed Nutrient Cycles

Closed System

(earth)

Closely Related

Clover

Club Fungi

Club Mosses

Cluster Cups

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Puccinia

Coalescence

Coal Gas

Coast Redwood

Coconuts

Coding

Codium

Coenocytic

Cohesion

Cold Period

Coleoptile

Coleorhiza

Collapse

(ecosystem)

Collenchyma

Collenchyma are living cells that are used for strengthening.  They are elongate with thick walls in the corners where several of these cells come together.  These cells are typically found just under the epidermis in a number of different types of stems.  The stringy cells in celery are collenchyma cells.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Tissue Types

                          PHOTOS:

Colony

Usually refers to the way algal cells cluster together.  A colony is an irregular cluster of algal cells.

Columella

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Anthoceros Capsule / Moss Capsule / Moss Capsule

Commensalism

Common Bean Seed

Communities

Companion Cells

Companion cells always exist together with sieve-tube members.  Sieve-tube members and companion cells are called sister cells because they originate from the same procambial cell or fusiform initial in the vascular cambium.  The order of development is that the meristem cell begins to differentiate by dividing once to form two cells, then one of the two cells differentiates further into a companion cell and the other into a sieve-tube member.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Sieve-Tube Element / Monocot Vascular Bundle

                          PHOTOS:  Monocot Vascular Bundle

Compensation Point

Complete flower

complete flower (ecosystem)

Composite flowers

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Composite Flower / Composite Flower
                                             Composite Flower / Composite Flower
                                             Composite Flower / Composite Flower
                                             Composite Flower / Composite Flower
                                             Composite Flower

Compound Leaf

A compound leaf is a leaf that has more than one lamina (leaflets) as compared to a simple leaf that has only one lamina.  A compound leaf can be of two types, either pinnately compound or palmately compound.  There are three criteria that makes a leaf compound: Lateral buds only occur in the axils of leaves, not in the axils of leaflets.  Thus, the leaf is compound if there are NO buds in the axils of the leaflets.

Compound leaves have their leaflets all oriented in the same plane.  Simple leaves, by comparison, have all their leaflets oriented in different planes.

Compound leaves, when they fall from a tree, fall as a unit with all their leaflets in tact.  Simple leaves, by comparison, fall separately.  Thus, if there are fallen leaves on the ground that contain several leaflets, then the leaves are compound.

Concentrated Solution

Conceptacle

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Fucus Female Conceptacle / Fucus Female Conceptacle
                                             Fucus Male Conceptacle / Fucus Male Conceptacle

Conducting Strands

Conduction

Cone

A cone is the reproductive fruiting structure of many tracheophytes. The cone may or may not be woody but is consists of many scales with the seeds borne on the surface of the cone scales. The cone starts out as a cluster of sporophylls at the tip of a branch, each sporophyll producing either spores or seeds on its upper surface.  The sporophyll, at maturity, becomes a cone scale.

Cone Scale

A cone scale is one of the "leaves" of a cone.  The cone scale starts out as a sporophyll with either spores or seed developing on its upper surface.  A cluster of sporophylls at the tip of a branch is termed a strobilus.  In pines and firs these strobili are woody and produce seeds.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cone Scale

                          PHOTOS:

Conidia

Conidiophores

Coniferophyta

Conifers

Conjugation

Connective

(pollen sac)

Conservation of Energy

(first law)

Consumers

Continental Shelf

Copper

Coprinus

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Coprinus / Coprinus / Coprinus
                                             Coprinus / Coprinus / Coprinus

Coraline Algae

Cork

Cork cells are the cells that develop around the periphery of the stem to protect it from water loss and invasion by insects, bacteria, and fungi spores.  Cork contains suberin, a waxy substance that is water proof. Cork is synonymous with periderm.

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  6-Year Tilia Stem

Cork Cambium

The cork cambium is a synonym for phellogen.  It is a cambium that forms in the cortex of the young stem and the pericycle of the young root.  It then divides, as a typical cambium does, on both sides of the cambium.  On the outer side about 4-5 layers of cells are formed.  On the inside only one layer of cells is formed.  The outer cells are called cork cells, the single inner layer is called phelloderm.  All of these cells contain suberin, a waxy substance that makes the cork water proof.  In the old stems, the cork cambium forms in the outer regions of the living phloem.

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  6-Year Tilia Stem

Corm

A corm is a modified stem that has the appearance of a bulb in that it is round, but it differs from a bulb in that it has no scales and is solid.  A gladolius produces a corm.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Corm

                          PHOTOS:

 

Corn

Corolla

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Composite Flower

Cortex

The cortex is a band of several layers of parenchyma cells just under the epidermis in both the stem and the root.  It is differentiated from the primary meristem tissue, ground meristem.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Growth of Woody Stem / Root Anatomy

                          PHOTOS:  Monocot Stem  / 6-Year Tilia Stem / Pinus Stem

                                              Dicot Root
                                              Monocot Root 1 / Monocot Root 2

                                              Moss Stem

                                              Psilotum Stem / Psilotum Stem

                                              Equisetum Stem

                                              Fern Rhizome / Fern Rhizome

Cortical Region

(fucus stipe)

Cotransport

Cotton

Cotyledons

The cotyledons are the leaf-like structures in the seed.  In a dicot seed, there are two halves to the seed as in a bean.  These two halves are the seed leaves of the bean seed. In the corn seed, there is only one seed leaf, thus the seed is not divided into two halves.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cotyledons / Acorn

                          PHOTOS:

Cover Cells

Coyotes

Crabs

Crescent-shaped

(in connection with guard cell shape)

Cristae

                    DIAGRAMS:  Mitochondria

                          PHOTOS:

Critical Minimum

(short-day plants)

Critical Period

(long-day plants)

Cross Wall

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:  Pinus Stem

Cross Section

A cross section is a section perpendicular to the long axis of the object.  Thus, in a stem, a cross section would be a cut cross ways (perpendicular to the length) on the stem.

Crystal Violet

Cucumber

Cupressaceae

Cup Scales

                    DIAGRAMS:  Acorn

                          PHOTOS:

Cupule

                    DIAGRAMS:  Acorn

                          PHOTOS:

Cure

(cure fish)

Cuticle

The cuticle is a thin layer of waxy material composed of cutin that is secreted by the epidermal cells.  All cells in the epidermis contain this, even the guard cells.  It makes the cells water proof and protects the stem from loss of water and invasion by fungal spores, insects, and bacteria.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Leaf Cross-section / Hydathode

                          PHOTOS:  1-Year Tilia Stem
                                             6-Year Tilia Stem 1 / 6-Year Tilia Stem 2

Cutin

Cutin is the waxy material secreted by the epidermis that makes up the cuticle on the surface of the epidermis.

Cuttings

Cyanobacteria

Cycadophyta

Cycads

Cycas revoluta

Cylinder

A cylinder can be described as a hollow rod-shaped structure.  As we apply it to botanical structures, such as the vascular cambium, it is a thin band of meristem tissue that circles the entire stem and extends up and down the stem like a cylinder.  In Anthoceros, a cylinder of sporogenous tissue is formed lengthwise in the sporophyte.

Cyme

                    DIAGRAMS:

                          PHOTOS:

Cyperaceae

Cypress

Cytokinesis

Cytokinins

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is the portion of the living cell that is contained with in the lumen of the cell excluding the nucleus.  The cytoplasm may also be described as the liquid portion of the cell with all of the various organelles embedded within this liquid matrix, excluding the matrix. Finally, the cytoplasm may be described as all the material inside the plasmalemma or cell membrane excluding the nucleus.

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cytoplasm / Sclerenchyma / Cell Wall

                          PHOTOS:

Cytoplasmic Streaming

Cytosol

                    DIAGRAMS:  Cytoplasm

                          PHOTOS: