Psychological Testing
Study Questions: Gould Chapter Six
Spring, 1998
Aubyn Fulton

1. Why does Gould fantasize about being an identical twin?

2. Briefly summarize the 4 "sins" of Cyril Burt. What was the impact of Burt's fraudulent data on psychology (cf especially Jenson).

3. What is the "real error" of Burt? How does this relate to his more publicized errors?

4. Name and explain what Gould calls one of the "two or three most serious and common errors of human reasoning".

5. What sacrifice is made in reducing 100 variables to 3 or 4? Why might we be willing to make this sacrifice? How does this get at the heart of factor analysis?

6. Explain the terms "first" and "second" principle components.

7. Explain Spearman's cardinal invalid inference.

8. Explain Spearman's Two-Factor Theory. What was the name of the 1904 paper he published his results in?

9. What Platonic pleasure did Spearman take in his Two-Factor Theory?

10. Explain why, according to the logic of Factor Analysis, "g" is best measured with a large collection of diverse tests?

11. Explain Spearman's metaphor of energy and the engine.

12. What four arguments did Burt give for discounting the role of environment on IQ? What problem does Gould see with all of these points?

13. How are the political difference between the United States and Great Britain reflected in the differences between the conclusions of Goddard and Burt?

14. How did Burt's four-factor theory support, rather than undermine, Spearman's two-factor theory?

15. What did Burt and Binet have in common? What was different about Burt?

16. What do the Immigration Act of 1924 and the examination at 11+ have in common?

17. How has Herrenstein recycled Burt's argument twice?

18. Explain the difference between Spearman and Burt's principal component and Thurstone's simple structure.

19. What happens to the idea of ranking in Thurstone's world of PMA's?

20. What are "oblique" axes, and do these lead back to a kind of "g"? Is this, after all, a vindication of Spearman? Explain all three reasons.

21. Why is Gould, a Paleontologist, especially astounded by Arthur Jenson?